Measurement of Ambient Air Quality
A properly designed and executed ambient air quality monitoring programme will provide valid data for many organization, property developers, industries and government authorities to evaluate the air quality of a particular site or region. In some instances, the situations are highly complex and require detailed measurements to capture the actual scenario of ambient air quality at site. Such measurements must be carried out at carefully selected locations using precise and calibrated samplers and monitors.
ESM has substantial experience in monitoring ambient air quality and is able to conduct survey for the following air quality parameters:
- Suspended Particulates (TSP and PM10)
- Heavy metals
- SO2, NO2, CO
- H2S, Cl2
- Acid mists i.e. HCl, H2SO4, HF, HNO3, H3PO4
- Hydrocarbons, volatile organic compounds e.g. benzene, toluene, xylene, ethyl-benzene, etc.
- Temperature, humidity, wind speed & direction
- Pesticides and PCBs, Dioxins and Furans
- Other species by request
All the samplers and equipment used by ESM have been selected for their reliability and are regularly calibrated to ensure their accuracy.
Since the introduction of the Environmental Quality (Clean Air) Regulations 1978, operators of industrial facilities are required to submit emission data to the Department of Environment (DOE) and relevant local authorities as proof of compliance with the statutory limits under the regulations concerned. ESM provides competitively priced stack emission monitoring services using internationally recognised protocols that are conducted by qualified and trained staff.
We have extensive experience in monitoring stack flue gas. Our capability includes testing the following parameters:
- Concentration and mass emission of particulate using isokinetic sampling techniques
- Gas concentration – NOx, SOx, CO, VOC’s (total and specific), O2, H2S, dioxins/furans
- Acidic gases - HCl, H2SO4, HF, HNO3, H3PO4, HCN
- Heavy metals
- Hydrocarbon and volatile organic compounds e.g. benzene, toluene, xylene, ethyl-benzene, etc.
- Other species by request
Various measurement techniques have been developed for the assessment of noise emission from single or multiple sources such as industrial plants, railways, road vehicles, aircraft or construction activities as a result of research on the impacts of noise on human beings. ESM has the capability to conduct various types of noise survey and measurement to meet different requirements from the enforcement authorities, industries and consulting firms. The services that ESM offers include:
- Measurement of overall environmental noise at the site arising from multiple noise sources. Measurement parameters include:
- Equivalent continuous sound pressure level LAeq
- Maximum level LAmax
- Minimum level LAmin
- Percentile level LAx (LA5, LA10, LA50, LA90, LA95)
- Instantaneous sound pressure level, Lp
- Measurement of sound pressure levels of gas turbines or other machineries installed at specific locations or within buildings. This serves as compliance measurement as well as part of the impact evaluation on environmental noise.
- Measurement of sound frequencies and pressure levels for a specific environment or equivalent or a combination of different equipments for abatement purposes. The objective is to identify offending sound frequency range(s) that is responsible for high noise level.
Soil is often contaminated at industrial sites by various chemicals used or end products from production processes, particularly at the storage and production facilities of a plant. Some of the contaminants are not only retained in the top-soil but also penetrate through it, reaching the groundwater level. Therefore, it is imperative that investigation to determine the degree of soil and ground water contamination for a suspected contaminated site be conducted.
Baseline soil and groundwater survey is normally conducted before the occupation of a site for industrial purposes. ESM offers the following scope of site sampling and measurement as well as laboratory testing pertaining to soil contamination and sub-soil gas measurement:
- Sampling of soil and sub-soil to determine the extent of contamination
- Analysis of soil and sub-soil samples for various types of contaminants
- On-site measurement of sub-soil organic gases using pre-calibrated portable meters
- Sampling of sub-soil gases for further laboratory analysis
Groundwater study is essential to determine the existing quality of groundwater at a designated site. Baseline groundwater survey is normally conducted before the occupation of the site for industrial purposes. Subsequent and continuous monitoring of groundwater after occupation of site is an important step to evaluate and detect contaminant(s) that might penetrate through the ground and reach the groundwater level.
ESM provides the following services for groundwater study:
- Permanent groundwater well installation using established protocol
- Purging of groundwater well and sampling of groundwater for various targeted contaminants using different techniques/protocols and equipment/accessories
- Appropriate preservation and handling of groundwater samples using chain-of-custody
- Conducting analysis for various types of targeted organic and in-organic contaminants using established analytical procedures
Vibration and sound are generated during rock blasting, construction, passing train and aircraft landing and taking off, etc. Vibration and sound generated from the source are propagated spherically like an elastic wave in the ground and the amplitude diminishes inversely as the distance advance from the initial spot of event. Certain amplitude of vibration and sound experienced by human can be very uncomfortable and damaging to properties.
ESM is capable of carrying out vibration and sound measurement at carefully selected sites using seismography during events that generate vibration and sound for the following purposes:
- Quantitative measurement that provides an indication of what vibration and sound levels can be expected and therefore the appropriate abatement to be taken to rectify the situation
- Quantitative measurement that provides the industries or local authority a better understanding of the reasonable vibration and sound expected, so that any future contractual agreement or regulations to be considered may be realistic.